The Common Core asks students to read stories and literature, as well as more complex texts that provide facts and background knowledge in areas such as science and social studies. This stresses critical-thinking, problem-solving, and analytical skills that are required for success in college, career, and life. Because students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, the standards promote the literacy skills and concepts required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines. States determine how to incorporate these standards into their existing standards for those subjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards.
Grading Pitting edema is graded on a scale from 1 to 4, which is based on both the depth the "pit" leaves and how long the pit remains. A patient with a score of 1 has edema that is slight roughly 2mm in depth and disappears rapidly.
A score of 2 is deeper 4mm and disappears within 15 seconds. A score of 3 is deeper yet 6mmand can last longer than a minute; in stage 3 pitting edema the extremity also looks grossly swollen. Finally, stage 4 is the most severe with deep pitting 8mm or greater in depth that may last more than 2 minutes.
Causes Pitting edema is most commonly seen in patients with heart, liver, or kidney failure. These three conditions cause the body to hold onto excess sodium and water.
It can also be seen in patient's with rheumatological diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
Pitting edema can also be seen in patients receiving excess intravenous fluids. Regardless of the cause, the excess fluid leaks out of the capillaries and into the surrounding tissues. When it leaks into the subcutaneous tissues it is seen clinically as pitting edema.
It is important to note that if pitting edema is present, the patient may also be "leaking" fluid into the lung's airspaces and abdominal cavity. If significant lung edema is present a patient may experience shortness of breath, and potentially respiratory failure.
If edema is present in the abdominal cavity aka: Overview Pitting edema occurs when the examiner can make an indentation or "pit" in the extremity of a patient. This is caused by excessive fluid seeping out of the capillaries and into the subcutaneous tissues.
It occurs most commonly in patients with heart, kidney, or liver failure, as well as in patients who have received too much intravenous fluid.Transforming media into collaborative spaces with video, voice, and text commenting. Eighth grade is the term used for the eighth year of formal education in the US, and is typically the last year of middle attheheels.com England, the equivalent is Year attheheels.com Brazil, the equivalent is nono ano (ninth grade), and in Scotland the equivalent is attheheels.comy, students will be 13–14 years old.
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