The Impact of Immigration on American Society: In addition to teaching undergraduate and graduate courses on demography, immigration and ethnicity, and Southeast Asia, Hirschman conducts research on immigration and ethnicity in United States and on social change in Southeast Asia. There is a strong base of support for continued immigration as a necessary ingredient for economic growth and as an essential element of a cosmopolitan society among many Americans. Almost 60 million people— more than one fifth of the total population of the United States—are immigrants or the children of immigrants.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? The Immigration of Indians in the 19th Century Topic: The immigration of East Indian indentured workers to the Caribbean in the 19th century could be regarded as a new system of slavery.
Slavery was the initial labour system used by Europeans on their plantations in the Caribbean. These Africans and those from the African lineage became slaves on the plantations where they were not seen as humans and were treated as animals or property.
This was because many of the slaves had left plantation to go start a new life. In addition, the remaining population had cultivated land of their own; often when it was harvesting time instead of harvesting the crops on the estates, the freed people would harvest their own crops which posed a problem to planters.
As a result of this major problem, planters now had to develop new strategies to regulate the labour force on the estates.
There are various factors that made the strategy of importing East Indians a success. These factors are commonly referred to as push and pull factors. In the East Indies at that time, specifically in India, there was a large population.
The Immigration in the 19th century essay population was not being utalized hence there being a large number of unemployed people. Many of the East Indian people had nothing tying them down in India. Other reason for success of the importation of the East Indians was that India experienced similar climatic conditions to that of the Caribbean.
Indian labourers who had already proved successful in Mauritius; they were then considered to be a good bet for survival in Jamaica.
E Gladstone and owner of two plantations In British Guiana, applied to the secretary of state for the colonies, to get permission to import Indian labourers. In with the arrival of Indians,the great flood of Indian immigration had begun Tinker H. This meant that the indentured workers were imported between the periods of and West Indians were imported aswell to British Guiana and Trinidad, withandrespectively while countries like Jamaica received 38, because the labour shortage was not as devastating as it was in Trinidad and British Guiana.
These indentured workers that were now being imported into the Caribbean came under contracts.
These contracts played a vital role in the working conditions of the Indians on the plantations,or should have. The conditions applied to all immigration schemes. The contracts were not drawn up by a mutual person or an East indian or a planter, the contracts were drawn up by West Indian planters, who wrote up the contracts to their own likings.
Therefore the contracts tended to the employers benefit rather than to the benefit of the employees East Indians. The conditions of the contract varied according to the scheme and colony involved. Before they could sign the contract they were to appear in the magistrates court and were to be fully informed about the conditions of the contract so that they were aware of what they were getting themselves into.
This was however not the case; first and fore most the contract was written in English which posed a problem to the Indians wh were not familiar with the language, this created a language barrierso basically the Indians signed thumb marks the contracts ignorant to what they would face on arriving at the new world.
The British government in the beginning would only allow contracts for a one year period, gradually this changed in and in changed from three years to five years respectively. Many historians will say that the immigration of East Indian indentured workers to the Caribbean in the 19th century could be regarded as a new system of slavery.
There are several factors which might have caused them to come to this conclusion. These factors can be divided into two groups: The transportation process starts off with the potential travellers gaining documents and passes from officials in India to travel.
There were many persons who wanted to come on this economic endeavour because of the poor working conditions and high unemployment rate in India. On the ship itself, the experience was similar to that of the slaves.
There were tight spaces and little to no moving space for the passengers. There were also many deaths during the long voyage despite the presence of a surgeon on each ship.
Life on the plantation was similar in that the Indians were illtreated just like the slaves. Investigations by the Anti-slavery Society revealed that many of the immigrants had died quickly Tinker H. They were badly beaten, wrongly imprisoned and many of the Indian women raped.
In addition to the physical abuse of the indentured servants, the plantation owners were not paying them the money they agreed to, which is a breach in contract and it constitutes criminal acts on the planters part. The indentured workers were paid less than the slaves and were initially placed at the bottom of the socio-economic scale.
However ,owing to the culture of the Indians, when they arrived on the plantation they considered themselves at a higher social status than the slaves due to the skin colour difference while in reality some of the slaves were at a higher economic status than they were.
In conjunction both groups were forced to abandon their way of life and subscribe to that of their masters and employers.The immigration reports include statistical reviews, emigration and immigration conditions in Europe and other parts of the world, occupations of immigrants (including extensive coverage of immigrants in the industries of the time), living conditions, conditions of immigrants in major metropolitan and agricultural areas, the schooling of immigrant children, social and cultural organizations and societies of .
Immigration in the 19th century In the 19th century the U.S was known as the golden door, due to the many opportunities the country had for all the foreign people.
They were two types of immigrants: the old immigrants and the new immigrants. - Immigration in 19th and 20th Century America During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many American nativist groups opposed free unrestricted immigration.
Although racism is a main reason, there were many others. Chinese immigration 19th century essay odio l estate interpretive essay. The Problems of Urbanization Essay PROBLEMS OF URBANIZATION Urbanization, or urban drift is the physical growth of urban areas as a result of global change.
Urbanization is also defined by the United Nations as movement of people from rural to urban areas with . Chinese Immigration, Exclusion and the Chinese-American Experience by Deborah Samuel Rationale.
I teach in an urban city school system, and my students are predominately African Americans.