Science, Symbolism and Spirituality: Sounds like a lot to be squeezed into a 90 minute film that is very light on dialogue.
Christiaan Huygens proved in that the pivot point and the center of oscillation are interchangeable. In Henry Kater used this idea to produce a type of reversible pendulum, now known as a Kater pendulumfor improved measurements of the acceleration due to gravity.
History Replica of Zhang Heng's seismometer. The pendulum is contained inside. One of the earliest known uses of a pendulum was a 1st-century seismometer device of Han Dynasty Chinese scientist Zhang Heng. Galileo's research Italian scientist Galileo Galilei was the first to study the properties of pendulums, beginning around He first employed freeswinging pendulums in simple timing applications.
His physician friend, Santorio Santoriiinvented a device which measured a patient's pulse by the length of a pendulum; the pulsilogium.
The pendulum clock The first pendulum clock In the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens built the first pendulum clock. This played a part in Newton's formulation of the law of universal gravitation. From this he deduced that the force of gravity was lower at Cayenne. Huygens' Horologium Oscillatorium In17 years after he invented the pendulum clock, Christiaan Huygens published his theory of the pendulum, Horologium Oscillatorium sive de motu pendulorum.
By a complicated method that was an early use of calculushe showed this curve was a cycloidrather than the circular arc of a pendulum,  confirming that the pendulum was not isochronous and Galileo's observation of isochronism was accurate only for small swings.
Temperature compensated pendulums The Foucault pendulum in was the first demonstration of the Earth's rotation that did not involve celestial observations, and it created a "pendulum mania". In this animation the rate of precession is greatly exaggerated.
During the 18th and 19th century, the pendulum clock 's role as the most accurate timekeeper motivated much practical research into improving pendulums. It was found that a major source of error was that the pendulum rod expanded and contracted with changes in ambient temperature, changing the period of swing.
Huygens had discovered in that a pendulum has the same period when hung from its center of oscillation as when hung from its pivot,  and the distance between the two points was equal to the length of a simple gravity pendulum of the same period. For the next century the reversible pendulum was the standard method of measuring absolute gravitational acceleration.
Foucault pendulum Main article: Decline in use Around low- thermal-expansion materials began to be used for pendulum rods in the highest precision clocks and other instruments, first invara nickel steel alloy, and later fused quartzwhich made temperature compensation trivial.
Clock pendulums Longcase clock Grandfather clock pendulum Ornamented pendulum in a French Comtoise clock Mercury pendulum Gridiron pendulum Ellicott pendulum, another temperature compensated type Invar pendulum in low pressure tank in Riefler regulator clockused as the US time standard from to Use for time measurement Pendulum and anchor escapement from a grandfather clock Animation of anchor escapementone of the most widely used escapements in pendulum clock.
For years, from its discovery around until development of the quartz clock in the s, the pendulum was the world's standard for accurate timekeeping.
Pendulums require great mechanical stability: Pendulum clock Pendulums in clocks see example at right are usually made of a weight or bob b suspended by a rod of wood or metal a. In quality clocks the bob is made as heavy as the suspension can support and the movement can drive, since this improves the regulation of the clock see Accuracy below.
A common weight for seconds pendulum bobs is 15 pounds 6. This avoids the friction and 'play' caused by a pivot, and the slight bending force of the spring merely adds to the pendulum's restoring force.
A few precision clocks have pivots of 'knife' blades resting on agate plates. The impulses to keep the pendulum swinging are provided by an arm hanging behind the pendulum called the crutch, ewhich ends in a fork, f whose prongs embrace the pendulum rod.
The crutch is pushed back and forth by the clock's escapementg,h. Each time the pendulum swings through its centre position, it releases one tooth of the escape wheel g.
The force of the clock's mainspring or a driving weight hanging from a pulley, transmitted through the clock's gear traincauses the wheel to turn, and a tooth presses against one of the pallets hgiving the pendulum a short push. The clock's wheels, geared to the escape wheel, move forward a fixed amount with each pendulum swing, advancing the clock's hands at a steady rate.
The pendulum always has a means of adjusting the period, usually by an adjustment nut c under the bob which moves it up or down on the rod.
Some precision clocks have a small auxiliary adjustment weight on a threaded shaft on the bob, to allow finer adjustment. Some tower clocks and precision clocks use a tray attached near to the midpoint of the pendulum rod, to which small weights can be added or removed.
This effectively shifts the centre of oscillation and allows the rate to be adjusted without stopping the clock.
Pendulum clocks should be attached firmly to a sturdy wall. The most common pendulum length in quality clocks, which is always used in grandfather clocksis the seconds pendulumabout 1 metre 39 inches long. Only a few large tower clocks use longer pendulums, the 1.
The wood had to be varnished to prevent water vapor from getting in, because changes in humidity also affected the length. Mercury pendulum The first device to compensate for this error was the mercury pendulum, invented by George Graham  in In a mercury pendulum, the pendulum's weight bob is a container of mercury.Magnetic gravity trick grows perfect crystals.
although the acceleration of a spacecraft or the movements of astronauts can still cause defects to develop in crystals.
Legendary Uses, and Meaning of Serandite. Serandite is a rare crystal with a simple purpose - to promote harmony. Its loving energy permits an ease of connection and encourages tolerance and acceptance. It controls the flow of energy and is the center of gravity of the body.
It is the center of the Life Force of the body, and controls. Perhaps lunar miners could use something analogous to Bruce Damer's idea for asteroids of using CO in an enclosure warmed by the sunlight and iron and nickel extracted in attached 3D printer - .
Amethyst may be used to occupy the North-East point on a crystal medicine wheel, used for healing and balancing one’s life. The north-east is the place of choices and meditating in this direction facilitates the decision-making process, bringing in spiritual guidance, common sense and realistic goals.
Crystal Meanings “In a crystal we have clear evidence of the existence of a formative life-principle, and though we cannot understand the life of a crystal, it is none the less a living being” -Nikola Telsa Crystals hold the history of our world, and encapsulate eons of crystalline information, knowledge and wisdom.
If we can tap into the energies within the crystals, we can be guided. Specific Gravity. N/A. For Sale @ Majestic Quartz? Yes, the good news is that you can have it in elixir form which helps you integrate the energy of this crystal into your life in an easier way.
question or information pertaining to the crystal healing properties and meaning of Moldavite? Please feel free to use the comments form below.