I was snatched out of virtual oblivion and thrust into sudden prominence, and from the precarious tenancy of furnished rooms about the country I was removed to a suite in a first-class Manhattan hotel. My experience was not unique. Success has often come that abruptly into the lives of Americans.
Moreover, if the level of arousal were too low or too high poor performance would ensue. However, the Inverted-U Hypothesis was seen by some as being far too simplistic, and a number of researchers began to question its validity. The Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety Martens et al.
Despite offering a much-improved explanation of the 'underlying mechanics' of competitive anxiety, both descriptions are fundamentally in conflict with each other, and are not devoid of their respective critics.
The aim of the essay is to firstly underline the foundations and basic principles of each of the theories, and secondly, to examine the criticisms that have been levied upon them. Finally, the essay offers conclusions and recommendations as to the future of the most plausible explanation of competitive anxiety in sport.
Introduction Competitive state-anxiety usually follows a pattern of subjective feelings of tension and inadequacy, combined with heightened arousal of the autonomic nervous system, e. The intensity and duration of the anxious state alternates according to; the amount of stressful stimuli the athlete encounters, and the period of subjective threat created by the stimuli e.
Originally, it was thought that the connection between performance and arousal was an uncomplicated Inverted-U Yerkes and Dodson,i. However, dissatisfied with the simplistic nature of the Inverted-U Hypothesis Yerkes and Dodson,many sport psychologists began to question its validity for a number of conceptual and methodological reasons.
Not least of all the question of whether Essay catastrophe of success hypothesis proposes a correlational or causal relationship between arousal and performance e.
This paved the way for a number of new theories and models that endeavoured to address the inadequacies of the Inverted-U at measuring and conceptualising competitive anxiety. The Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety Primarily, the theory is based on the assumption that competitive anxiety is comprised of two distinct parts; a cognitive component, and a somatic component, both having dissimilar effects on performance.
Hence, theoretically, the components can be manipulated independently of one another. The cognitive component has been defined as the negative expectations and concerns about one's ability to perform and the possible consequences of failure.
The culmination of the recognition of a Multidimensional Theory of Anxiety, in relation to the field of sport psychology, came about through Martens et al.
In addition, Martens et al. Administering their CSAI-2 to a selection of athletes, forty-eight hours, twenty-four hours, two hours, and five minutes before a critical event, they affirmed that the cognitive component staid stable before the start, but the somatic component began to increase prior to the onset of the event see fig.
They found a relationship between the two sub-components to such an extent that there were positive effects related to cognitive anxiety in the days before a crucial event when somatic anxiety was at a low level.
In addition, they found a combination of both negative and positive effects for somatic anxiety for a range of performance related activities shortly before the crucial event when cognitive anxiety was at an elevated level.
Before the recognition of Martens et al. For example, through factor analysis, Hamiltonand later Bussisolated and classified the anxiety-related psychiatric illness sub-components of psychic and somatic anxiety.
Their supposition was bolstered by their proposal that they could effectively negate either form of anxiety sub-component through selective relaxation therapy, i.
However, their attempt at illustrating a strong relationship between the two sub-components was not hailed as a complete success, as the high correlations found from six studies demonstrated.
Nevertheless, later attempts with a modified WEI achieved lower and more acceptable correlations e. As Hardy explains, " Thom's central theorem was that, with certain qualifications, all naturally occurring discontinuities could be classified as being of the 'same type' as i.
A year later Zeeman took the conceptual framework of catastrophe a step further by drawing attention to it's potential relevance and utilisation within the behavioural sciences. This was not without criticism; based upon the argument that effective testing using experimental methodology would not be possible e.
Nevertheless, with the aid of a tangible model, Zeeman demonstrated the effectiveness of the cusp catastrophe, leading the way for others to implement catastrophe models to the appropriate behavioural sciences. When measured by heart rate, both follow identical temporal patterns to, for example, a critical competitive event.
Nevertheless, there are a number of differences between the two in relation to their effect on performance. It has been reasoned that physiological arousal may have a direct effect upon performance through the suppression of crucial cognitive and physiological resources e.
Additionally, physiological arousal may also cause an athlete to interpret their physiological state as either negative or positive, inadvertently altering their performance e. Somatic anxiety, on the other hand, is believed to effect performance only if the extent of the somatic response is so large that the athlete becomes excessively concerned and distracted with their perceived physiological state e.
Nevertheless, that will only occur when the individual is exhibiting low cognitive state anxiety, e. Alternatively, a catastrophe will occur if the individual is exhibiting high cognitive anxiety e.
This is typified by an increase in physiological arousal that will reach a threshold point just over the cusp of optimal arousal. Thereafter follows a steep and expeditious deterioration in the individual's performance, i.
Hardy further proposed that cognitive anxiety behaves as a splitting factor that causes the normal factor's i. The model also predicts that if there is low physiological arousal present in the days leading up to an important event, cognitive anxiety will enhance the athlete's performance in relation to the baseline data that can be taken from his training session see left face, fig.
Additionally, Hardy goes on to state that the model will predict either positive or negative effects of physiological arousal upon performance when there is an elevation in cognitive anxiety.
This depends upon how high the cognitive anxiety is at the time.
This can be demonstrated by bisecting through fig. Physiological arousal should for the most part only be deleterious to athletic performance when there is high cognitive anxiety.Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional academic writers.
You can view samples of our professional work here.. Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays. Tennessee Williams wrote and spoke of the "catastrophe of success." In his curious case, it proved a double-barrelled catastrophe to him, both as a person and as a playwright of unusual gifts.
After the privations, repres- sions, disappointments, obsessions-and occasional joys-of his childhood and youth, which have been amply . I think that Williams' essay can connect to the drama in that it highlights the hollowness that exists in external reality.
For Williams, success breeds with it a condition of entrapment in which. A Socratic perspective on the relationship between ignorance, human evil, and the examined life. Hi Erin, Thank you for your essay. I am so sorry for your loss and the loss that it represents to your discipline.
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