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Fading programmes Definition Problem, or challenging, behaviour, is defined as: It is important to note that such behaviours are shown by only a minority of people with intellectual disabilities - 6.
For example, a young man who could not tolerate noisy places and caused so much disruption that he was no longer taken out to shops and cafes, was given a headset and a portable cassette player with tapes of music that he liked.
When he used these they screened out the other noises and he could then be taken out. See Donnellan et al By itself this may not change the behaviour but it can help to allow other methods to be put into place and to take effect. Positive Reinforcement Many of the methods described here involve the use of positive reinforcement.
This is defined as: So a preliminary to most programmes is the search for and identification of whatever is likely Disscuss the responses to challenging behaviour have that effect for this individual. The search for reinforcers should be wide-ranging, taking in sensory stimulation - lights, sounds, music, tastes, smells - preferred activities, favourite foods and drinks.
Social reinforcers - attention, approval, praise, hugs - are powerful reinforcers for some people but ineffective for others, and for others still may actually be aversive, so cannot be invariably relied on.
Whatever is finally selected, it is crucial that it is of great interest to the person concerned, and can be shown to increase any behaviour that it regularly follows.
Used to increase appropriate and to teach new behaviours, it works best when given after every occurrence of the behaviour, at least at first. In some cases the normal response to a behaviour, that would normally be thought of as unpleasant and leading to a decrease in any behaviour it follows, may have a contrary effect for a person with a learning disability.
One example of this is remonstrance, disapproval or anger. A person with a learning disability, if he or she enjoys attention, may relish the attention involved in the scolding; even angry attention may be better than none.
If this is the case then the scolding will act as a reinforcer, and will result, not in a lessening but rather in an increase of the behaviour, as the person realises that this is a good way of ensuring that people attend to him or her.
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviours One way of diminishing a challenging behaviour is to build up other behaviours, by deliberately reinforcing them, to compete with the target one.
These other behaviours may be those that are incompatible with the problem one, ie, it is impossible for the person to do both behaviours simultaneously. So a girl who frequently poked her eyes with her fingers, damaging her sight, was provided with a piece of apparatus which produced sounds and noises that she loved when she pressed its switches with her fingers.
While she pressed the switches and heard the sounds she could not at the same time poke her eyes, and the eye-poking diminished. Sometimes it is not possible to identify a behaviour that is incompatible with the target behaviour.
In this case all other behaviours may be reinforced, apart from the target one. Here it is the absence of the target behaviour that is reinforced: The person learns that he or she has a better time when not displaying the target behaviour, and so will display it less.
Next, two methods used to reduce problem or challenging behaviours by withholding reinforcement. Extinction Behaviours that are followed by a reinforcer are maintained or strengthened.
This may happen also, inadvertently, with a challenging behaviour. If the reinforcer for this challenging behaviour can be identified it may be possible to determine that it will never again follow the behaviour. Without reinforcement, the behaviour should eventually die out extinguish.
There are two caveats. First, the reinforcer must be one that can be controlled.
Regarding the first of these:Manage Challenging Behaviour Essay Sample. 1. Discuss 3 Strategies that you could adopt to help manage challenging behaviour. Adopting strategies to manage behaviour within a school largely depends on the whole school policy for behaviour management.
Challenging behaviour can include aggression, self-harm, destructiveness and disruptiveness. Challenging behaviour is often seen in people with conditions that affect communication and the brain, such as learning disabilities or Disscuss the responses to challenging behaviour Essay.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION They’ll negotiate; they’re corporate. mainstream, but not challenging it), or oppositional (different from the mainstream and behaviour and attitude, in what one can and cannot do, and even in what one can or cannot imagine doing.
In fact, structures and mental frames that determine our patterns of. Problem, or challenging, behaviour, is defined as: 'behaviour of such intensity, frequency or duration that the physical safety of the person or others is likely to be placed in serious jeopardy, or behaviour which is likely to seriously limit or deny access to and use of ordinary community facilities' (Emerson et al ).
Positive Behaviour Support is an evidence-based approach with a primary goal of increasing a person’s quality of life and a secondary goal of decreasing the frequency and . It also seeks to guide teachers’ responses to various behaviours in a manner which will establish more acceptable behaviour in its place.
It may be particularly helpful Managing Challenging Behaviour 5. be displayed in the classroom, perhaps with pictorial clues for non-readers. About ﬁve to.