See Article History Cultural globalization, a phenomenon by which the experience of everyday life, as influenced by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, reflects a standardization of cultural expressions around the world. Propelled by the efficiency or appeal of wireless communicationselectronic commercepopular cultureand international travel, globalization has been seen as a trend toward homogeneity that will eventually make human experience everywhere essentially the same. This appears, however, to be an overstatement of the phenomenon. Although homogenizing influences do indeed exist, they are far from creating anything akin to a single world culture.
Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s.
This term is used to describe the relationships between Challenge of globalization for w l and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.
The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East.
The second is distance. The interactions of states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africathe Middle Eastand certain parts of Europe. Eventually, technological advances allowed states to learn of others' existence and thus another phase of globalization can occur.
The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity.
If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other.
This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to work. This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization.
It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today.
Because it predated the Great Divergence of the nineteenth century, where Western Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic outputarchaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World centers such as GujaratBengalcoastal Chinaand Japan.
This archaic globalization existed during the Hellenistic Agewhen commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spainincluding Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities. Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of importing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade.
Trade in ancient Greece was largely unrestricted: Maize, tomato, potato, vanillarubber, cacaotobacco Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, Indian subcontinentPersiaEurope, and Arabiaopening long-distance political and economic interactions between them.
In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. Proto-globalization " Early modern -" or "proto-globalization" covers a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between and The concept of "proto-globalization" was first introduced by historians A.
Hopkins and Christopher Bayly. The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high "modern globalization" in the late 19th century.
In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India Company founded in and the Dutch East India Company founded inoften described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered were established. The period is marked by such trade arrangements as the East India Companythe shift of hegemony to Western Europe, the rise of larger-scale conflicts between powerful nations such as the Thirty Years' Warand the rise of newfound commodities—most particularly slave trade.
The Triangular Trade made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the Western Hemisphere.
The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops, and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred W. Crosby 's concept of the Columbian Exchange also played a central role in this process. European, MuslimIndian, Southeast Asianand Chinese merchants were all involved in early modern trade and communications, particularly in the Indian Ocean region.The Gender of Globalization: Women Navigating Cultural and Economic Marginalities (School for Advanced Research Advanced Seminar Series) [Ann Kingsolver, Nandini Gunewardena, Karen Brodkin, Mary Anglin, William L.
Lynn Bolles] on attheheels.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. As globalization moves rapidly from buzzword to cliché, evaluating the claims of neoliberal capitalism. If you are a teacher searching for educational material, please visit PBS LearningMedia for a wide range of free digital resources spanning preschool through 12th grade.
The debate over the positive and negative effects of globalization is a hot topic for many individuals, agencies, organizations and government departments who find themselves in a position to defend or attack the current globalization trends.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments attheheels.comization has grown due to advances in transportation and communication technology.
With increased global interactions comes the growth of international trade, ideas, and attheheels.comization is primarily an economic process of interaction and integration that. UN News produces daily news content in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Kiswahili, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish, and weekly programmes in Hindi, Urdu and Bangla.
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Globalization, which refers to the increasing integration and interdependence of countries, is a major trend shaping world affairs around the globe.