Import into RefWorks 1. Introduction Ebola hemorrhagic Disease EHD is a severe, often-fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates monkeys, gorillas, and chimpanzees that has appeared sporadically since its initial recognition in
References Introduction Filoviridae is the only known virus family about which we have such profound ignorance. First report on an Ebola outbreak was published in Bulletin of the World Health Organization in . Many of the areas that have been infected are areas of extreme poverty without even running water or soap to help control the spread of disease.
Some hospitals lack basic supplies and are understaffed, which has increased the likelihood of staff catching the virus themselves.
Members of this genus are called ebola viruses. Five different subspecies have been identified so far i. Available evidence and the nature of similar viruses made researchers believe that the virus is zoonotic animal-borne with bats being the most likely reservoir; other hosts may include porcupine, gorillas, chimpanzees, and antelopes.
Reported incubation period for EHV in human is 2 to 21 days after exposure, although days is most common. Secondary symptoms includes haemorrhaging i.
In severe cases, the haemorrhagic diathesis accompanied by leucopenia; thrombocytopenia; hepatic, renal and central nervous system involvement; or shock with multi-organ dysfunction have been reported .
Public Health Ontario has published a sample collection and submission guideline for suspected VHFs on August 22, . According to that, VHFs are not indigenous to Canada, but there have been both suspected and confirmed convalescent cases, and the potential for importation of an acute case is of concern.
Circumstances under which the Diagnosis of acute VHF should be considered are: Individuals who, within 3 weeks before onset of fever, have either; travelled in the specific local area of a country where VHF has recently occurred if exact travel history is unknown, risk assessment should be done through consultation with an Infectious Disease Specialisthad direct contact with blood, other body fluids, secretions, or excretions of a person or animal with VHF, or worked in a laboratory or animal facility that handles haemorrhagic fever viruses.
Other diseases that should be ruled out before a diagnosis of EVF can be made include: EVD can be diagnosed through several types of tests e. It is important to note that only specimens essential for diagnosis or monitoring should be obtained; by experienced staff using all necessary personal protective equipments.
These PPEs should be worn by all those who are obtaining, handling and testing laboratory specimens. Glass containers are strictly avoided, and all the disposable sharp objects, such as needles, scalpel blades etc.
Because of the highly infectious nature, absence of specific drug of target and bio-safety concerns it is strictly recommended to avoid any risk of unnecessary contact and hence infected tissues from suspected individual should not be tested as a first line specimen, each sample for EHD specific testing should be submitted individually with its own separate requisition form.
All the other tests requested on same requisition form will be cancelled or remain on hold depending EHD testing results. Till now there is no targeted drug or vaccine available for EHD, but patients are continuously being treated for their symptoms especially in the very early stages of the disease.
Options includes extremely supportive care, maintenance of electrolytes, fluids, oxygen supply, blood pressure, transfusion of fresh blood or its components, and strict isolation of the patient to control the hospital acquired infections.
Preventive measures can help to reduce the chances of contracting the virus. Especially in a region where a VHF or an Ebola outbreak has occurred due to direct contact with the bodies of people died of either EVD, any other VHF or due to an unknown illnesses be strictly avoided.
They should also closely monitor their health status and in-case of any symptoms developed, even minor they should seek immediate medical attention.Ebola hemorrhagic fever is considered one of the most lethal viral infections; the mortality rate (death rate) may be very high during outbreaks (reports of outbreaks range from about 50%% of people infected, depending on the Ebola strain); consequently, the .
Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting. Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting December This manual was prepared by: Figure 1 Epidemiological graph of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
Ebola virus disease in nonendemic countries.
Author links open overlay time of this writing, the WHO has issued no travel restrictions to the affected countries. However, it is prudent to issue health warnings to potential visitors to affected countries.
virologic, and immunologic follow-up of convalescent Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Transmission of Ebola Virus Disease: An Overview. Introduction. The largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an acute viral syndrome that presents with fever and an ensuing bleeding diathesis that is marked by high mortality in human and NHPs.
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus.
Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa.