Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was born in Paris on Aug. In his last two years at the college his scientific interests were aroused.
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier The French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was the founder of the modern science of chemistry and the author of the oxygen theory of combustion. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was born in Paris on Aug. In his last two years at the college his scientific interests were aroused.
However, he continued his scientific education in his spare time.
In he read his first paper to the French Academy of Sciences, on the chemical and physical properties of gypsum hydrated calcium sulfateand in he was awarded a gold medal by the King for an essay on the problems of urban street lighting. In Lavoisier received a provisional appointment to the Academy of Sciences.
About the same time he bought a share in the Tax Farm, a financial company which advanced the estimated tax revenue to the royal government in return for the right to collect the taxes. It was to prove a fateful step. Lavoisier consolidated his social and economic position when, inhe married Marie Anne Pierrette Paulze, the year-old daughter of a senior member of the Tax Farm.
He did, however, present one important memoir to the Academy of Sciences during this period, on the supposed conversion of water into earth by evaporation.
By a very precise quantitative experiment Lavoisier showed that the "earthy" sediment produced after long-continued reflux heating of water in a glass vessel was not due to a conversion of the water into earth but rather to the gradual disintegration of the inside of the glass vessel produced by the boiling water.
Oxygen Theory of Combustion During the summer and fall of Lavoisier turned his attention to the phenomenon of combustion, the topic on which he was to make his most significant contribution to science.
He reported the results of his first experiments on combustion in a note to the academy on October 20 in which he reported that when phosphorus burned it combined with a large quantity of air to produce acid spirit of phosphorus phosphoric acid and that the phosphorus increased in weight on burning.
In a second sealed note deposited with the academy a few weeks later November 1 Lavoisier extended his observations and conclusions to the burning of sulfur and went on to add that "what is observed in the combustion of sulfur and phosphorus may well take place in the case of all substances that gain in weight by combustion and calcination: He published an account of this review in in a book entitled Opuscules physiques et chimiques Physical and Chemical Essays.
In the course of this review he made his first full study of the work of Joseph Blackthe Scottish chemist who had carried out a series of classic quantitative experiments on the mild and caustic alkalies. Black had shown that the difference between a mild alkali, for example, chalk CaCO3and the caustic form, for example, quicklime CaOlay in the fact that the former contained "fixed air," not common air fixed in the chalk, but a distinct chemical species, carbon dioxide CO2which was a constituent of the atmosphere.
In the spring of Lavoisier carried out experiments on the calcination of tin and lead in sealed vessels which conclusively confirmed that the increase in weight of metals on calcination was due to combination with air.
But was it combination with common atmospheric air or with only a part of atmospheric air?
In October the English chemist Joseph Priestley visited Paris, where he met Lavoisier and told him of the air which he had produced by heating the red calx of mercury with a burning glass and which had supported combustion with extreme vigor. Priestley at this time was unsure of the nature of this gas, but he felt that it was an especially pure form of common air.
Lavoisier carried out his own researches on this peculiar substance.
When reduced without charcoal, it gave off an air which supported respiration and combustion in an enhanced way. He concluded that this was just a pure form of common air, and that it was the air itself "undivided, without alteration, without decomposition" which combined with metals on calcination.
After returning from Paris, Priestley took up once again his investigation of the air from mercury calx. His results now showed that this air was not just an especially pure form of common air but was "five or six times better than common air, for the purpose of respiration, inflammation, and … every other use of common air.
Since it was therefore in a state to absorb a much greater quantity of phlogiston given off by burning bodies and respiring animals, the greatly enhanced combustion of substances and the greater ease of breathing in this air were explained.
He showed that this residual air supported neither combustion nor respiration and that approximately five volumes of this air added to one volume of the dephlogisticated air gave common atmospheric air.
Common air was then a mixture of two distinct chemical species with quite different properties. Thus when the revised version of the Easter Memoir was published inLavoisier no longer stated that the principle which combined with metals on calcination was just common air but "nothing else than the healthiest and purest part of the air" or the "eminently respirable part of the air.
He held that all acids contained oxygen and that oxygen was therefore the acidifying principle. He was now ready to mount a wholesale attack on the current phlogiston theory. There were also innumerable reports for and committees of the Academy of Sciences to investigate specific problems on order of the royal government.
Lavoisier, whose organizing skills were outstanding, frequently landed the task of writing up such official reports. In he was made one of four commissioners of gunpowder appointed to replace a private company, similar to the Tax Farm, which had proved unsatisfactory in supplying France with its munitions requirements.
As a result of his efforts, both the quantity and quality of French gunpowder greatly improved, and it became a source of revenue for the government.
As a commissioner, he enjoyed both a house and a laboratory in the Royal Arsenal. Here he lived and worked between and In he read to the academy his famous paper entitled "Reflections of Phlogiston," a full-scale attack on the current phlogiston theory of combustion. That year Lavoisier also began a series of experiments on the composition of water which were to prove an important capstone to his combustion theory and win many converts to it.
Many investigators had been experimenting with the combination of inflammable air hydrogen with dephlogisticated air oxygen by electrically sparking mixtures of the gases. All of the researchers noted the production of water, but all interpreted the reaction in varying ways within the framework of the phlogiston theory.
In cooperation with mathematician Pierre Simon de Laplace, Lavoisier synthesized water by burning jets of hydrogen and oxygen in a bell jar over mercury.Antoine Lavoisier Biography Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was born on August 26, , in Paris, Kingdom of France and died at his fiftieth birthday on May 8, , in Paris, the first French Republic.
Antoine Lavoisier, né Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier le 26 août à Paris et guillotiné le 8 mai à Paris, est un chimiste, philosophe et économiste Lavoisier Antoine biography, birth date, birth place and pictures.
Antoine Laurent Lavoisier >The French chemist Antoine Laurent Lavoisier () was the founder of >the modern science of chemistry and the author of the oxygen theory of >combustion. Antoine Laurent Lavoisier was born in Paris on Aug. Early Life Antoine Lavoisier was born in Paris, France on August 26, He grew up in an aristocratic and wealthy family.
His father was a lawyer and his mother died when he was only five years old.
Jul 20, · Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier was born into a wealthy family on August 26, in France’s capital city, Paris. His father was Jean-Antoine Lavoisier, a lawyer in the Paris Parliament. Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier was born to well-to-do parents, in Paris, France, on 26 August The child pursued his primary schooling from the 'Collège des Quatre-Nations', graduating in In school, he developed an interest in subjects like botany, chemistry, mathematics and attheheels.com Of Birth: Paris.